The article looks at the interactions between protein and carbohydrate recognition. Regarding viruses the Galectin-1 is thought to hinder viral infectivity and conversely serve in a protective function against the neutralizing host antibodies in other cases. Galectin-1 is involved in the initial recognition and blocking of envelope and fusion glycoproteins. This can lead to downstream activation and amplification of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the type of virus the galectins can prevent or facilitate infection.