Pipeline

ProLectin Pipeline

ProLectin-M - chewable polysaccharide tablet for the early stage of COVID-19.

ProLectin-I - IV treatment for more severe cases of COVID-19.

ProLectin-A - treatment of ARDS as a result of COVID-19.

ProLectin-F - IV treatment of lung-fibrosis as a result of the use of ventilators used for treatment of COVID-19.

ProLectin-M

Science behind the product:

Bioxytran has a significant subject matter expertise in the formulation of an oral form of a Galectin inhibitor. The company was able to capitalize on Dr Platt’s many years of research and recent peer reviewed articles on Galectins and COVID-19 to quickly complete the proof of concept phase. Dr Platt, who has a PhD in carbohydrate chemistry, was the first scientist to express the gene, which he named Galectin, 28 years ago.

We know that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the coronavirus spike protein is similar from genus to genus. On the COVID-19 spike protein scientists have elucidated a galectin fold on the side of the spike that should have a binding affinity to sugar carbohydrates like ProLectin.  Animal studies on influenza (needs reference) have demonstrated that inhibiting galectin-1 improves outcomes in lethal influenza models. Other animal’s models show that galectin inhibitors act as immune modulators in cancer and other diseases.

Our molecule is designed to stay in the blood and attach to the COVID-19 protein spikes. When the inhibitor binds to the spike it effectively tags the virus for elimination through the liver.  Galectins are theorized to participate in the antiviral defense which starts at the initial recognition of the virus before it binds to the entry receptor all the way through the activation and amplification of the innate and adaptive responses of the immune system.

Galectins are adhesion molecules and allow neutrophils to stay prepositioned in the pulmonary capillaries for a quicker reaction in case of infection.  They are also involved in the trafficking of macrophages responsible for the inflammatory cycle of the cytokine storm.  Additionally, research in cancer and viruses has demonstrated that galectins form a plaque on CD-8 T-cells which inhibit the adaptive immune response.  Therefore, our galectin inhibitor should not only reduce the viral load of COVID-19, but also modulate the immune response by reducing the trafficking of macrophages thereby reducing the cytokine storm and returning the immune system to homeostasis.  We also expect it to restore functionality to the adaptive immune system by reactivating anergic T-cells that were covered in galectin plaque.    

If given early in the disease, we believe that our first drug candidate, ProLectin-M, will block viral entry and tag the virus for elimination through the liver.  In theory the virus will be eliminated from the blood stream after a couple of treatments. At a later stage in the disease pathology, a more potent IV solution, ProLectin- I could restore adaptive immune function to help eradicate the virus from the body.  In severe COVID-19 patients the drug, ProLectin-A, could reduce the trafficking of macrophages responsible for the cytokine storm and restore immune homeostasis. ProLectin-F is designed to treat organ damage after virus is eliminated from the system.

ProLectin-M is the first-in-class of inhibitors to cover a range of Galectins associated with viral replication adhesion and immune system blockage (not modulation). The N-terminal domain (NTD) of the coronavirus spike protein is similar from genus to genus. On the COVID-19 spike protein the Galectin fold on the side of the spike has a binding affinity to sugar carbohydrates like ProLectin-M.

Galectins are members of a family of proteins called lectins. These proteins interact with carbohydrate sugars located on the surface, in between cells, and on the Galectin fold of the spike protein. These interactions cause the cells to change behavior, including cell movement, multiplication, and other cellular functions. The interactions between lectins and their target carbohydrate sugars occur via a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), within the lectins. Galectins have a CRD that binds specifically to sugar molecules. They have a broad range of functions, including regulation of cell survival and adhesion, promotion of cell-to-cell interactions, growth of blood vessels, regulation of the immune response and inflammation. During viral infections Galectins are upregulated and downregulated based on the type of virus.

Degenerative Disease/Hypoxia Development Pipeline