Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in necrosis and cell death. Stroke is the second most frequent cause of death worldwide. South Asians are at particularly high risk for stroke, accounting for 40% of global stroke deaths.
There are two main types of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by interruption of the blood supply to the brain, while hemorrhagic strokes result from the rupture of a blood vessel or an abnormal vascular structure. Most of the strokes are ischemic, the rest being hemorrhagic. Bleeding can develop inside areas of ischemia, a condition known as hemorrhagic transformation.
Brain tissue ceases to function if deprived of oxygen for more than 60 to 90 seconds, and after approximately three hours will suffer irreversible injury possibly leading to death of the tissue or necrosis. Since blood vessels in the brain are now blocked, the brain becomes low in energy, and thus it resorts into using anaerobic metabolism within the region of brain tissue affected by ischemia.
In addition to damaging effects on brain cells, ischemia and infarction can result in loss of structural integrity of brain tissue and blood vessels The loss of vascular structural integrity results in a breakdown of the protective blood brain barrier that contributes to cerebral edema, which can cause secondary progression of the brain injury.
Brain ischemia causes insufficient blood flow to the brain, and can be acute or chronic. Acute ischemic stroke is a neurological emergency that may be reversed if treated rapidly. Chronic ischemia of the brain may result in a form of dementia called vascular dementia. A brief episode of ischemia affecting the brain is called a transient ischemic attack, often erroneously referred to as a “mini-stroke” (1).
(1) “Thrombus”. MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine
Wound healing is the process by which skin or other body tissue repairs itself after trauma. In undamaged skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (the deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external environment. When the barrier is broken, an orchestrated cascade of biochemical events is set into motion to repair the damage. This process is divided into predictable phases: hemostasis (blood clotting), inflammation, tissue growth and proliferation, and tissue remodeling or maturation.
The wound healing process is both complex and fragile, and it is susceptible to interruption or failure, leading to the formation of non-healing chronic wounds. Factors that contribute to non-healing chronic wounds are diabetes, venous or arterial disease, infection, and metabolic deficiencies of old age.
Advancements in the clinical understanding of wounds and their pathophysiology have commanded significant biomedical innovations in the treatment of acute, chronic, and other types of wounds. Many biologics, skin substitutes, bio-membranes, and scaffolds have been developed to facilitate wound healing through various mechanisms (2). Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process of restoring cellular structure and tissue layers. Future advances in wound healing will focus on the agents that influence the repair of damaged tissue. This may include laser techniques, stem cells, fetal tissue, and other modalities that enhance the proliferation and migration of cells, and acceleration of the healing process (3).BioXyTran Inc.’s product BXT-252 can improve the supply of oxygen to wounded tissue and potentially accelerate healing. It can be applied together with any of the above treatment modalities.
(2) Vyas KS, Vasconez HC. Wound Healing: Biologics, Skin Substitutes, Biomembranes and Scaffolds. Healthcare. 2014; 2(3): 356-400
(3) The 2015 Physician’s Guide to the Wound Institute®